MONITORING MANGROVE UNTUK ESTIMASI POTENSI KARBON BIRU DI DUMAI, RIAU

Nuryani Wigdati, Frida Sidik, Novia Arinda Pradisty
  JFMR, pp. 459-469  

Abstract


Mangrove menyediakan berbagai jasa ekosistem, salah satunya adalah sebagai penyerap dan penyimpan karbon biru. Perhitungan jumlah simpanan dan serapan karbon di hutan mangrove menjadi penting karena hutan mangrove di Indonesia memiliki simpanan karbon biru tertinggi di dunia. Informasi potensi karbon biru mangrove dapat diperoleh dari kegiatan monitoring mangrove yang dilakukan secara berkala. Dengan lokasi penelitian di Dumai, Riau, studi ini mengestimasi karbon yang disimpan dan diserap oleh pohon mangrove di tepi sungai dan dalam hutan. Struktur komunitas diketahui dengan menghitung Shannon-Wiener Index, sementara biomasa dan potensi simpanan karbon mangrove dihitung dengan persamaan alometrik khusus berdasarkan jenis. Jenis mangrove yang ditemukan di lokasi penelitian antara lain Rhizophora apiculata, Avicennia marina, Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera racemosa, dan Nypa frutican, dimana  Stasiun Tepi Sungai didominasi oleh Xylocarpus granatum (kisaran Ø 1.36-23.25 cm), sementara Rhizophora apiculata mendominasi stasiun di dalam hutan dengan kisaran Ø 1.27-23.25 cm. Laju pertumbuhan mangrove cukup beragam dan Avicennia marina memiliki laju tercepat. Hasil menunjukan bahwa dengan estimasi rata-rata biomasa mangrove sekitar 596.56 Mg ha-1 hutan mangrove di Dumai, Riau berpotensi menyimpan karbon sebesar 285.24 Mg C ha-1. Karbon yang tersimpan di Stasiun Dalam Hutan lebih besar (332.9 Mg C ha-1) dibandingkan dengan di Stasiun Tepi Sungai (237.58 Mg C ha-1). Apabila satu hektar hutan mangrove di Dumai, Riau, rusak atau hilang, maka potensi karbon yang dilepaskan sebesar 1046.83 Mg CO2 ha-1, yaitu setara dengan jumlah CO2 yang terlepas dari pembakaran 524.82 ton batu bara.


Mangroves provide various ecosystem services, one of which is as a carbon sink and storage. The assessment of mangrove carbon stock and sequestration becomes a global concern especially for Indonesia’s mangrove forests that store most of mangrove blue carbon in the world. Blue carbon potentialsl in mangroves can be estimated by assessing mangroves through periodic monitoring. Here, the study was undertaken in mangrove forests in Dumai, Riau and aimed to assess the carbon stored and sequestered in mangroves located riverside and inside the forests. The forest structure was examined with the Shannon-Wiener Index, while biomass and potential carbon storage of mangroves calculated by specific allometric equations based on the species. The species found in the study site were Rhizophora apiculata, Avicennia marina, Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia alba, Lumnitzera racemosa, and Nypa frutican. The riverside station was dominated by Xylocarpus granatum (ranging Ø 1.36-23.25 cm), while Rhizophora apiculata dominated the station inside the forest (ranging Ø o1.27-23.25 cm). The rates of mangrove growth varied among the species, with Avicennia marina as the greatest. Our result showed that the mean of mangrove biomass in the study site was 596.56 Mg ha-1 with carbon stock potential of 285.24 Mg C ha-1. Mangroves inside the forests stored more carbon (332.9 Mg C ha-1) than ones in the riverside (237.58 Mg C ha-1). We estimated that the destruction of one hectare of mangrove forest in the study site can potentially release 1046.83 CO2, which is equivalent to CO2 released from 524.82 tonnes of burned coals.


Keywords


Biomass, carbon stock, mangrove forest, Dumai, Riau

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