EFFECTIVENESS OF BACILLUS SPP. PRESS ON BLUE GREEN ALGAE (BGA) CAUSING OFF-FLAVOR IN CATFISH CULTIVATION
Keywords:aquaculture, bacillus spp, blue green algae, off-flavors, plankton.
AbstractA problem that often occurred for the actor of catfish cultivation was an indication of smelly mud/dirt/muddy taste (off-flavors). Off-flavors were identified from chemical geosmin compound (GSM) and 2-Methyl Iso-borneol (MIB) produced by Cyanophyceae (Blue Green Algae or BGA) and actinomycetes. This soil odor compounds was soluble in water, into the body of fish through the gill and forwarded to the fatty tissue of fish, so that the fish meat was finally mud-smelly/dirt/musty. Probiotics was an attempt to reduce the compounds that caused off-flavors. The use of probiotics containing Bacillus spp. on feed could degrade organic matter through bioremediation digestive organs and environmental fish farming to minimize the accumulation of organic matter. The reduced of organic matter in waters on total organic odor, has impacted on the percentage of BGA as cause of mud-smelly in waters, especially for species Oscillatoria Sp. In this study, the researchers used Bacillus spp. to treat 10 ml/kg and 20 ml/kg of feed that can indirectly lower the percentage of BGA, Oscillatoria population Sp. and off-flavor in catfish meat as compared to controls.
X. Yang, X. Wu, H. I. Hao, and Z. E. He. â€œMechanisms and assessment of water eutrophication,â€ Journal of Zhejiang University Science B., vol. 9, no. 3, p. 197-209, Mar 2008.
J. A. Jonns, P. R. Brooks, P. Exley, S. Poole, and D. I. Kurtboke. â€œStreptophage-mediated control of flavour taint producing streptomycetes isolated from barramundi ponds,â€œ Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology., vol. 2, p. 105-112, Jun 2017.
S. Chong, H. Lee, and K. G. An. â€œPredicting taste and odor compounds in a shallow reservoir using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic ecological model,â€ Water., vol. 10, p. 1-19, Oct 2018.
K. E. Achyuthan, J. C. Harper, R. P. Manginell, and M. W. Moorman. â€œVolatile metabolites emission by in vivo microalgae-an overlooked opportunity,â€ Metabolites., vol. 7, no. 39, p. 1-46, Jul 2017.
R. L. Naylor, R. W. Hardy, D. P. Bureau, P. D. Nichols, et al. â€œFeeding aquaculture in an era of finite resources,â€ PNAS., vol. 106, no. 36, p. 15103-15110, Sep 2009.
F. M. F. Elshaghabee, N. Rokana, R. D. Gulhane, C. Sharma, and H. Panwar. â€œBacillus as potential probiotics: status, concerns, and future perspectives,â€ Frontiers in Microbiology., vol. 8, no. 1490, p. 1-15, Aug 2017.
S. H. Hoseinifar, Y. Z. Sun, A. Wang, and Z. Zhou. â€œProbiotics as means of diseases control in aquaculture, a review of current knowledge and future perspectives,â€ Frontiers in Microbiology., vol. 9, no. 2429, p. 1-18, Oct 2018.
S. Cauller, C. Nannan, A. Gillis, F. Licciardi, C. Bragard, and J. Mahillon. â€œOverview of the antimicrobial compounds produced by members of the bacillus subtilis group,â€ Frontiers in Microbiology., vol. 10, no. 302, p. 1-19, Feb 2019.
M. S. Heydarnejad. â€œSurvival and growth of common carp (cyprinus carpio L) exposed to different water pH levels,â€ Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., vol. 36, no. 3, p. 245-249, Aug 2012.
P. Frey-Klett, P. Burlinson, A. Deveau, M. Barret, M. Tarrka, and A. Sarniguet. â€œBacterial-fungal interactions: Hyphens between agricultural, clinical, environmental, and food microbiologists,â€ Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews., vol. 75, no. 4, p. 583-609, Dec 2011.
B. Rabha, S. Dhiman, K. Yadav, S. Hazarika, R. K. Bhola, and V. Veer. â€œInfluence of water physicochemical characteristics on simuliidae (diptera) prevalence in some streams of Meghalaya India,â€ J. Vector. Borne. Dis., vol. 50, no. 1, p. 18-23, Mar 2013.
S. R. Pezeshki, and R. D. DeLaune. â€œSoil oxidation-reduction in wetlands and its impact on plant functioning,â€ Biology., vol. 1, p. 196-221, Jul 2012.
G. A. Somerville, and R. A. Proctor. â€œCultivation conditions and the diffusion of oxygen into culture media: The rationale for the flask-to-medium ratio in microbiology,â€ BMC Microbiology., vol. 13, no. 9, p. 1-2, Jan 2013.
F. Moreno-Marin, J. J. Vergara, J. L. Perez-Llorenz, M. F. Pedersen, and F. G. Brun. â€œInteraction between ammonium toxicity and green tide development over seagrass meadows: A laboratory study,â€ PLoS ONE., vol. 11, no. 4, p. 1-17, Apr 2016.
E. Koda, A. Miszkowska, and A. Sieczka. â€œLevels of organic pollution indicators in groundwater at the old landfill and waste management site,â€ Applied Science., vol. 7, no. 638, p. 1-22, Jun 2017.
G. Vadivelan, and G. Venkateswaran. â€œProduction and enhancement of omega-3 fatty acid from Mortierella Alpina CFR-GV15: Its food and therapeutic application,â€ Biomed Research International., vol. 2014, no. 657414, p. 1-9, May 2014.
G. S. Burr, W. R. Wolters, K. K. Schrader, and S. T. Summerfelt. â€œImpact of depuration of earthy-musty off-flavors on fillet quality of atlantic salmon, salmo salar, Cultured in recirculating aquaculture system,â€ Aquacultural Engineering., vol. 50, p. 28-36, Sep 2012.
K. M. I. Bashir, J. S. Kim, J. H. An, J. H. Sohn, and J. Suk Choi. â€œNatural food additives and preservatives for fish-paste products: A review of the past, present, and future states of research,â€ Journal of Food Quality., vol. 9675469, p. 1-32, Nov 2017.
F. JuÂ¨ttner, and S. B. Watson. â€œBiochemical and ecological control of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in source waters,â€ Applied and Environmental Microbiology., vol.73, no. 14, p. 4395-4406, Jul 2017.
A. G. S. Gous, V. L. AImli, V. Coetzee, and H. L. de Kock. â€œEffects of varying the color, bitter, and sweet levels of a grapefruit-like model beverage on the sensory properties and liking of the consumer,â€ Nutrients., vol. 11, no. 464, p. 1-16, Feb 2019..
N. N. Gerber, and H. A. Lechevalier. â€œGeosmin: An earthy-smelling substance, isolated from actinomycetes,â€ Appl. Microbiol., vol. 13, p. 935-938, Nov 1965.
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the publisher.