In-Vivo Test of Chlorella vulgaris Extract for Induction into Heat Shock Proteins of Cantang Grouper (Ephinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus) Infected by Viral Nervous Necrosis

Amira Masitha, Uun Yanuhar, Asus Maizar Suryanto Hertika
  JFMR, pp. 22-31  

Abstract


Cantang Grouper fish (Ephinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus) has a high value both in international and local markets. However, these fishes have decreased production due to viral infection of VNN (Viral Nervous Necrosis). In relation to viral infections, heat shock protein (HSP) inducer derived from C. vulgaris is an effort to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent due to VNN infection. The aim of this research to know the potential of C. vulgaris extracts as an inducer of heat shock protein. The method used in this research is experimental method using in-vivo test treatment of C.vulgaris extracts with of 33 μg/ml in Cantang grouper fish with four treatments that are (A) control fish, (B) fish infected with VNN, (C) fish treated with C. vulgaris extracts, and (D) Fish treated with C. vulgaris extracts  and VNN infection. The results showed that in the phytochemical test, C. vulgaris extracts showed that there are three compounds contained are alkaloids, terpenoids, and tannins. Control fish was labelled using IgG anti Hsp 70 anti-mouse inflammatory response no apparent inflammatory reaction, fish treated with  33 μg/ml of C. vulgaris extracts HSP-70 responses was low inflammatory response, and fish treated with  33 μg/ml of C. vulgaris extract and VNN inflammatory response strengthened and tissue inflammatory response only with VNN infection were very strong. The results showed the treatment of 33 μg/ml of C. vulgaris extracts can inhibit the development of the virus also capable reduced the inflammatory response to Cantang grouper infected by VNN.

Keywords


Cantang grouper fish; Viral Nervous Necrosis; Heat Shock Protein; Chlorella vulgaris

Full Text:

PDF

References


S. Ismi, Y. N. Asih, and Daniar Kusumawati, “Peningkatan Produksi Dan Kualitas Benih Ikan Kerapu Melalui Program Hibridisasi,” J. Ilmu dan Teknol. Kelaut. Trop., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 333–342, 2013.

R. F. Firdaus, L. S. Lim, G. Kawamura, and R. Shapawi, “Assessment on the acceptability of hybrid grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂ to soybean meal-based diets,” AACL Bioflux, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 284–290, 2016.

N. M. Noor, S. K. Das, Z. C. Cob, and M. A. Ghaffar, “Effects of Salinities and Diets on Growth of Juvenile Hybrid Grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × E. lanceolattus,” Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., vol. 18, pp. 1045–1051, 2018.

U. Yanuhar, “The Function of Receptor Protein Humpback Grouper Cromileptes Altivelis in Expression and Proliferation of CD4 and CD8 cells in Defence Immunity of Viral Nervous Necrotic Infection,” Int. J. Biosci. Biochem. Bioinforma., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 119–124, 2011.

M. E. J. Zorriehzahra et al., “Isolation and confirmation of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and leaping mullet (Liza saliens) in the Iranian waters of the Caspian Sea,” Vet. Microbiol., vol. 190, pp. 27–37, 2016.

C. C. Lin, J. H. Y. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. L. Yang, “An oral nervous necrosis virus vaccine that induces protective immunity in larvae of grouper (Epinephelus coioides),” Aquaculture, vol. 268, no. 1–4 SPEC. ISS., pp. 265–273, 2007.

H. Cahyadi, E. Tyasrini, and J. Lucianus, “Peranan Heat Shock Protein pada Patogenesis Penyakit Infeksi dan Penyakit Autoimun,” JKM, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 110–116, 2004.

H. Park, I. Y. Ahn, and E. L. Hye, “Expression of heat shock protein 70 in the thermally stressed Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica,” Cell Stress Chaperones, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 275–282, 2007.

U. Yanuhar, R. Christiawan, M. Mahmudi, A. M. Sh, and D. Arfiati, “Heat Shock Protein (HSP) Response Within RNA Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) that Infect of the Humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis,” 3rd Proceeding of International Conference on Chemical, Agricultural and Medical Sciences, pp. 9–13, 2015.

C. C. Chang et al., “Heat shock protein 70 protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation-induced nitric oxide synthase II expression,” Neurobiol. Dis., vol. 62, pp. 241–249, 2014.

Sukarni, Sudjito, N. Hamidi, U. Yanuhar, and I. N. G. Wardana, “Potential and properties of marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata as biomass fuel feedstock,” Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 279–290, 2014.

C. V. Viegas et al., “Algal products beyond lipids: Comprehensive characterization of different products in direct saponification of green alga Chlorella sp.,” Algal Res., vol. 11, pp. 156–164, 2015.

U. Yanuhar, Mikroalga Laut Nannochloropsis Oculata: Malang: UB Press, 2016.

G. Tang and P. M. Suter, “Vitamin A, nutrition, and health values of Algae: Spirulina, chlorella, and dunaliella,” J. Pharm. Nutr. Sci., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111–118, 2011.

U. Yanuhar, “The Role of Immunogenic Adhesin Vibrio alginolyticus 49 kDa to Molecule Expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex on Receptors of Humpback Grouper Cromileptes altivelis,” World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., no. 67, pp. 968–973, 2010.

U. Yanuhar and A. Khumaidi, “The application of pigment-protein fraction from Nannochloropsis oculata on β-actin response of Cromileptes altivelis infected with viral nervous necrosis,” J. Akuakultur Indones., vol. 16, no. 1, p. 22, 2017.

D. Fithriani, S. Amini, and S. Melanie, “Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol Dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina sp ., Chlorella sp ., dan Nannochloropsis sp. Activity of Microalgae Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp . and,” JPB Kelaut. dan Perikanan., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2015.

Y. H. Pyo, Y. J. Jin, and J. Y. Hwang, “Comparison of the effects of blending and juicing on the phytochemicals contents and antioxidant capacity of typical Korean kernel fruit juices,” Prev. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2014.

R. Aksara, W. J. A. Musa, and L. Alio, “Identifikasi Senyawa Alkaloid Dari Ekstrak Metanol Kulit Batang Mangga (Mangifera indica L),” J. Entropi, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 514–519, 2013.

E. Widiyati, “Penentuan Adanya Senyawa Triterpenoid Dan Uji Aktivitas Biologis Pada Beberapa Spesies Tanaman Obat Tradisional Masyarakat Pedesaan Bengkulu,” J. Gradien, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2006.

P. P. Sari et al., “Identifikasi Dan Uji Aktivitas Senyawa Tanin Dari Ekstrak Daun Trembesi (Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr) Sebagai Antibakteri Escherichia coli (E. coli),” J. Kim., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2015.

B. Martono and T. Setiyono, “Skrining fitokimia enam genotipe teh,” J. Tidp, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 63–68, 2014.

L. P. Malangngi, M. S. Sangi, and J. J. E. Paendong, “Penentuan Kandungan Tanin dan Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Biji Buah Alpukat (Persea americana Mill),” J. MIPA Unsrat Online, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2012.

M. D. Astuti, E. M. Kuntorini, and F. E. P. Wisuda, “Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz),” Valensi, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 2014.

Zulfadli, N. Ferdinal, and B. Arifin, “Isolasi Terpenoid Fraksi Aktif Antioksidan Dari Daun Andong (Cordyline fruticosa [L.] A. Cheval),” J. Kim. Unand, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2015.

K. Khotimah, Darius, and B. B. Sasmito, “Ujia aktifitas senyawa aktif alga coklat (Sargassum fillipendulla) sebagai antioksidan pada minyak ikan lemuru (Sardinella longiceps),” Thpi Student J., vol. I, no. 1, pp. 10–20, 2013.

T. indah B. S, I. K, and Soehardjo, “Peran Heat Siiock Protein (HSP) Terhadap Penyakit Rongga Mulut,” IJD, vol. 14, 2006.

E. H. Hardi, E. Harris, A. M. Lusiastuti, L. M. Perairan, U. Mulawarman, and K. Timur, “Karakteristik dan Patogenisitas Streptococcus Agalactiae Tipe β -hemolitik dan Non-hemolitik pada Ikan Nila,” Jurnal Veteriner, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 152–164, 2011.

E. Novisa, Tarsim, and E. Harpeni, “Pengaruh Jintan Hitam (Nigella sativa) Terhadap Histopatologi Organ Kakap Putih (Lates calcarifer) Yang Terinfeksi Viral Nervous Necrosis Secara Buatan,” J. Rekayasa dan Teknol. Budid. Perair., vol. III, no. 2, pp. 383–388, 2015.

Rizka Rahmana Putri, U. Yanuhar, and A. M. S. H, “Perubahan Struktur Jaringan Mata Dan Otak Pada Larva Ikan Kerapu Tikus (Cromileptes altivelis) Yang Terinfeksi Viral Nervous Necrosis (VNN) Dengan Pemeriksaan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM),” MSPi STUDENT J., vol. I, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2013.

C. Tan et al., “Determination of the complete nucleotide sequences of RNA1 and RNA2 from greasy grouper (Epinephelus tauvina) nervous necrosis virus, Singapore strain,” J. Gen. Virol., vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 647–653, 2001.

M. F. D. J. Raposo, A. Maria, M. Bernardo, R. Manuel, and S. Costa, “Bioactivity and Applications of Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae,” Polysaccharides, pp. 1–38, 2014.

A. A. Knowlton, “NFκB, heat shock proteins, HSF-1, and inflammation,” Cardiovasc. Res., vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 7–8, 2006.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 JFMR-Journal of Fisheries and Marine Research